Active Smoking

1.File name: Ian Macdonald analysis cigarette theory

Ian Macdonald, Clinical Professor of Surgery, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles full statement before US Congress dated July 1957. Questions the alleged cause-effect relationship between smoking and lung cancer.

2. File name: statement ian macdonald

Ian Macdonald, Clinical Professor of Surgery, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles full statement before US Congress dated April 1965. Reiterates that there is no scientifically established causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer, addresses some developments since 1957.

3. File name: joseph wolffe statement

Joseph Wolffe MD, full statement before US Congress dated March 1965. Argues that a causal relationship between smoking and cardio-vascular disease has not been established.

4. File name: Alan Donnahoe statement

Alan Donnahoe, statistician, full statement before US Congress, undetermined date, sometime between 1965-1969 together with Q&A with members of the committee. Examines the US Surgeon report on smoking and health. Finds many inconsistencies and frailties within the report which is mostly based on statistical data of highly dubious quality.

5. File name: statement by Brownlee

K. Alexander Brownlee, statistician, full statement before US Congress, dated 1969. Argues that the publications of US Public Health Service have failed to prove that smoking causes lung cancer. Moreover, by claiming they have the answer, they may have discouraged further research.

6. File name: Victor Buhler statement

Victor Buhler, MD, pathologist, full statement before US Congress, dated 1982. Argues that the legislative proposal that ‘ cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer’ is not supported by clinical or pathological observations

7. File name: statement dr sterling

Theodor Sterling, PhD, full statement before US Congress, undetermined date, post 1964. Argues that there is insufficient evidence that smoking tobacco causes disease. Covers animal experiments, statistical and epidemiological data from US Surgeon report.

8. File name: surgeon general’s epidemiologic criteria critique – Burch

P.R.J. Burch, medical physicist, UK based, article dated 1982. Criticizes the epidemiologic criteria of US Surgeon 1982 report with special reference to smoking and lung cancer.

9. File name: Smoking and lung cancer – Berkson

Joseph Berkson, MD, ScD, article dated 1963. Analyzes the statistical studies which suggest that cigarette smoking is an etiological factor in lung cancer. He presents ‘the other side of the coin’.

10. File name: Lung cancer chd and smoking – Eysenck

H.J. Eysenck, PhD, ScD, statement dated 1982. Argues that a causal connection between smoking and lung cancer or coronary heart disease (CHD) hasn’t been established.

11. File name: Israel Rappaport statement

Israel Rappaport, MD, full statement before US Congress, undetermined date, post 1964. Explains why he is opposed to such statements as ‘cigarette smoking is the most important of the causes of chronic bronchitis’ or ‘cigarette smoking leads to pulmonary emphysema’.

12. File name: Thomas Brem statement

Thomas Brem, MD, full statement before US Congress, dated 1969. Questions if the increase in lung cancer incidence in the first half of 20th century is real. Makes the case that it’s not and this is inconsistent with the smoking – cancer theory.

13. File name: Ferdinand Helwig

Ferdinand Helwig, MD, pathologist, statement, undetermined date, post 1964. Argues that cancer isn’t caused by smoking. US Surgeon in his report only presented on side of the controversy.

14. File name: Statement of Hiram Langston

Hiram Langston, MD, full statement before US Congress, undetermined date, post 1964. As a thoracic surgeon, argues that the alleged causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is inconsistent with clinical realities.

15. File name: Leo Katz statement

Leo Katz, PhD, full statement before US Congress, undetermined date, post 1964. Questions the relationship between smoking and various diseases. Argues that associations don’t equal causations.

16. File name: how big is the big kill – Burch

P.R.J. Burch, medical physicist, UK based, article dated 1983. Debunks the Health Education Council and BMA joint document which claims that smoking kills annually 77.774 persons in England and Wales.

17. File name: smoking and health – counter evidence

undated document, post 1964, gives a summary of counter-evidence to the claim that smoking is hazardous to health.

18. File name: Review of Smoking and Health – Brownlee

K. Alexander Brownlee, statistician, article in Journal of American Statistical Association dated 1965. Makes a critical review of the statistics used in US Surgeon report 1964. His conclusion is that the committee hasn’t established the case for causality in lung cancer.

19. File name: Ronald A Fisher – Smoking Cancer controversy

Sir Ronald A. Fisher, ScD, F.R.S., collection of writings questioning the soundness of lung cancer – smoking statistics. Dated 1959.

20. File name: statement Sheldon Sommers

Sheldon Sommers, MD, full statement before US Congress, dated 1983. Takes issue with some of the ‘findings’ of the ‘Smoking Prevention Health & Education Act’ 1983.

21. File name: statement Carl Seltzer

Carl Seltzer, doctor, full statement before US Congress, dated 1983. Discusses among other things the proposed label on cigarette packs ‘Warning: cigarette smoke is a major cause of heart disease’.

Argues there is no consistent, valid scientific evidence for such statements.

22. File name: statement Eleanor Macdonald

Eleanor Macdonald, professor emeritus of epidemiology, full statement before US Congress, dated 1982 or 1983. Argues that congress can’t legislate on scientific facts. Talks about some drawbacks of epidemiology.

23. File name: statement Lawrence Kupper

Lawrence Kupper, PhD, biostatistician, full statement before US Congress, dated 1982 or 1983. Makes the case that a causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer has not been scientifically demonstrated.

24. File name: berkson

Joseph Berkson, MD, ScD, condensed and simplified version of paper ‘The statistical study of association between lung cancer and smoking’ dated 1955. Questions the validity of American Cancer Society’s report claiming to prove association between lung cancer and smoking.

25. File name: statement Katherine Herrold

Katherine Herrold, certified pathologist, full statement before US Congress, dated 1982 or 1983. Argues that the theory that smoking causes lung cancer is not proven.

26. File name: statement russell fisher

H. Russell Fisher, MD, Emeritus Professor of pathology, full statement before US Congress, dated 1982 or 1983. Argues that the cause(s) of cancer is unknown. Most claims against cigarette smoking are based on statistical coincidence or association. This has given rise to an emotional tide, seized upon by various groups and agencies.

27. File name: statement Edwin Fisher

Edwin Fisher, MD, professor of pathology, full statement before US Congress, dated 1983. Argues that smoking has not been scientifically established to be a cause of cardiovascular disease.

28. File name: statement jack farris

Jack Farris, MD, Emeritus Professor of Surgery, full statement before US Congress, dated 1982 or 1983. Argues that smoking – health controversy has not been resolved. Doesn’t believe that smoking causes lung cancer. The problem can only be solved by continued exploration of various theories and not by legislating the cause of a disease.

29. File name: statement Walter Booker

Walter Booker, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology, full statement before US Congress, dated 1982 or 1983. Argues against proposed statements such as ‘smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer and emphysema’, ‘one third of heart disease deaths are associated with smoking’.

30. File name: affidavit Rodger Bick

Rodger Bick, MD, affidavit dated 1990. His opinion is that the issue whether smoking has been scientifically demonstrated to be a cause of human disease is an open question.

31. File name: lies, damned lies

Robert Levy and Rosalind Marimont article, dated 1998, debunks the figure of 400.000 smoking related deaths per year in the USA.

A critique of Levy and Marimont, and authors’ response.

32. John Mayer statement.

John H. Mayer, MD, Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon in Kansas, statement before US Congress dated 1965 argues that the cause(s) of lung cancer haven’t been established.

33. Joseph Ogura statement.

Joint statement on behalf of Dr. Joseph H. Ogura, Dr. Alden H. Miller, Dr. George A. Sisson and D . Harold G .Tabb before US Congress dated 1965. Dr. Joseph H. Ogura is Professor of Otolaryngology at Washington University, St . Louis. Argues that it hasn’t been proved that smoking is a causal factor in laryngeal cancer.

34. Henry Garland statement.

Henry Garland, MD , Clinical Professor of Radiology, statement before US Congress dated 1965 questions the conclusions of US Surgeon General 1964 report on smoking and health and the necessity of cigarette packs labelling

35. Henry McMahon statement.

Henry Mcmahon, doctor, practicing specialist in heart disease in New York, statement before US Congress dated 1965, argues that there is no acceptable evidence for a causal relationship between smoking and coronary heart disease.

36. Louis Clerf statement

Louis Clerf, doctor, Professor of Laryngology and Broncho-Esophagology, Emeritus, Jefferson Medical College, statement before US Congress dated 1965 says that he can’t support the hypotheses that smoking causes laryngeal or lung cancer.

37. Raymond Barrett statement

Raymond Barrett, MD, Chief of Thoracic Surgery at Detroit Memorial and St. Joseph Mercy Hospitals statement before US Congress dated 1965 argues that there is no actual epidemic increase in lung cancer and that clinical findings are not consistent with the causal theory of smoking and lung cancer.

38. Sherman Kaplan statement

Sherman Kaplan, Chairman of Department of Medicine, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Miami Beach, Florida, statement before US Congress dated 1965, reviews critically the notion that smoking is responsible for a large number of cardiovascular deaths.

39. William Ober statement

William Ober, MD, Associate Professor of Pathology and Director of Laboratories at Knickerbocker Hospital statement before US Congress dated 1969 argues that the idea that cigarette smoking is the principal cause of lung cancer hasn’t been proven.

One Response to Active Smoking

  1. Pingback: Historical Documents | Frank Davis

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