Zyban, Chantix, NRT, etc.

A comment by Rose earlier today set me thinking:

Smoking pill link to 35 deaths

"GlaxoSmithKline, the world’s second largest drug company, conceded yesterday that the anti-smoking drug Zyban was suspected of causing adverse reactions in 35 people who have died in the UK since it was introduced last June.

The acknowledgement came at the inquest of Kerry Weston, 21, a British Airways air hostess who was found dead in a hotel room in Nairobi, Kenya, in January, two weeks after she began taking the drug to help her quit her 15-a-day habit. (Guardian)

I’m usually not particularly interested in Stop Smoking drugs, because I have no intention of ever using any. What intrigued me about this was that it was Zyban that was being linked to smokers’ deaths. Wasn’t it Chantix or Champix that was linked? Or were they the same drug under different names? I began to investigate.

It soon emerged that they were quite different drugs, made by different manufacturers. I found the side effects of Zyban listed as fever, nausea, agitation, anxiety, dry mouth, headache, skin rashes, constipation, sleep problems and convulsive fits. Listed in the same place were the side effects of Chantix, which were nausea, headache, difficulty sleeping, abnormal dreams, increased appetite, taste changes, dry mouth, drowsiness, tiredness, dizziness, and gut disturbances such as constipation, diarrhoea or indigestion. I’ve emphasized the duplicate symptoms found in Chantix and Zyban.

What about NRT? Does that have any side effects? Yes, it does.

headaches, dizziness, racing pulse, vivid dreams, indigestion, dry mouth, feeling or being sick, diarrhoea.

Isn’t that amazing? All these quit-smoking drugs share the same side effects! Nothing there about sudden death though. But then I found out more on a lawyer blog:

March 26, 2010 11:54 AM

Last summer the FDA issued a warning on the drugs Chantix and Zyban, used by people trying to quit smoking, for their link to suicides. Zyban is also sold as Wellbutrin and is also used to treat depression. A July 2009 New York Times article states that Chantix has been linked to 98 suicides and 188 attempted suicides; Zyban is linked to 14 suicides and 17 attempted suicides.

According to FDA reports as well as information gathered from clinical trials, many people started experiencing mental health side effects a short time after taking the drugs, which ended after they stopped taking the medication.

So both the Zyban and Chantix are linked with suicide (and perhaps also sudden death). Next the Daily Mail 21 Jan 2008:

Widow claims father-of-two was driven to suicide by ‘quit smoking’ drug

A widow claimed yesterday that a drug designed to help smokers quit may have played a role in her husband’s suicide.

Father-of-two Wayne Marshall, 36, was found hanged shortly after completing a 13-week course of Champix, which it is feared may have depressive side effects.

Then I began to see that the medical and quit smoking sites which had listed the side effects were playing down the suicide and sudden death risks, while the Daily Mail and the lawyer blog were playing them up. A published study of smoking and suicide concluded:

4.1. Summary of Results
The above data indicate a) suicide is strongly associated with current smoking; however, whether this is because smoking is a marker for other causes of suicide or because smoking or nicotine actually is a behavioral toxin is unclear, b) suicide might be expected to increase during initial smoking cessation but the little data available does not confirm this, and c) three smoking cessation medications–bupropion [Zyban], rimonabant and varenicline [Chantix]–have been associated with suicidality in smokers; however, the validity of data for this last association is unclear.

Interesting that there’s a third drug there, rimonabant, which is also associated with suicide. So you’re quite likely to kill yourself if you smoke, but what happens when you try to give up smoking using some prescribed drug is ‘unclear’, or else there’s ‘little data’.

Funny that all three of these stop-smoking drugs carry a suicide risk.

The apologists for the various drugs blame all the depression and suicidality on smoking, naturally. You’re quite likely already depressed and suicidal if you smoke (in case you hadn’t noticed). But then, when you try and give up, you get even more depressed and suicidal. Nothing to do with the drugs, of course. It’s just another one of the innumerable evils of tobacco. It’s what happens when you give up smoking:

When you quit there are four main negative side effects that most people experience:

Mood changes – on average these last up to four weeks. Typical manifestations include being irritable, restless and depressed.

Difficulty in concentrating – on average this lasts less than two weeks

Urges to smoke – These will last for about four weeks, as the nicotine ‘craving’ only lasts four weeks if you have stopped smoking. As time goes on they will decline in frequency, but may increase in intensity. Don’t be surprised if you have a really strong urge for a cigarette quite a few months, even a year, after stopping.

Increased hunger and weight gain…

I guess that my conclusion is that, should I ever decide to give up smoking, then it would be imperative NOT to use Zyban, Chantix, or any other pharma product. Much better to do it cold turkey. Best of all is to never give up smoking at all. Because that way you don’t get any side effects at all.

But I also found myself wondering whether any of the doctors and antismoking organisations and pharma companies care anyway what happened to smokers who used these drugs. After all, it’s not about health. Anyone can see that smoking bans which drive smokers out into the cold and wet cannot in any way be good for their health. Neither is it good for anyone’s health to become socially isolated or estranged from their circle of friends. Do any of the various "lifestyle health" experts give a damn about that? No, they don’t. They’re just trying to get rid of smoking and smokers using the state-sponsored violence of smoking bans and smoking denormalisation.

And if you’re just trying to get rid of smokers, then it absolutely makes sense to prescribe them drugs which will make life hell for them, and maybe even kill them, or – best of all – get them to kill themselves. After all, in the eyes of antismokers, smokers are already killing themselves anyway. You’re just helping them on their way.

And furthermore you get them to pay for their own extermination. With ever-rising taxes on tobacco, and finally paying with their own money for the prescription drug that will kill them.

The smoker holocaust may have already begun. The new antismoking Nazis may actually be just as murderous as the original Nazis. But this time it’s not going to be done with gas chambers and firing squads. The holocaust will be self-administered this time. It will be the victim who will be to blame, not the guards in the concentration camp. It will be his fault in the first place for being a smoker, and his fault for taking the prescribed drugs, and his fault for hanging himself. They don’t want any Nuremberg trials this time around.

Over the top?

Maybe. And maybe not. You never know, these days.

About Frank Davis

smoker
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58 Responses to Zyban, Chantix, NRT, etc.

  1. Anonymous says:

    “And furthermore you get them to pay for their own extermination. With ever-rising taxes on tobacco, and finally paying with their own money for the prescription drug that will kill them.”
    The use of euphemisms distorted the facts and added a veneer of respectability to the proceedings. The Reich Committee for the scientific approach to severe illness due to heredity and constitution arranged for the killing of handicapped children. The charitable transport company for the sick transported adult patients to the killing centres while The Charitable Foundation for Institutional Care collected the cost of killings from bereaved relatives. The SS Xray Battalion identified TB patients in the general population and then shot them.
    http://www.cmf.org.uk/publications/content.asp?context=article&id=1606
    Magnetic

  2. Anonymous says:

    “And furthermore you get them to pay for their own extermination. With ever-rising taxes on tobacco, and finally paying with their own money for the prescription drug that will kill them.”
    The use of euphemisms distorted the facts and added a veneer of respectability to the proceedings. The Reich Committee for the scientific approach to severe illness due to heredity and constitution arranged for the killing of handicapped children. The charitable transport company for the sick transported adult patients to the killing centres while The Charitable Foundation for Institutional Care collected the cost of killings from bereaved relatives. The SS Xray Battalion identified TB patients in the general population and then shot them.
    http://www.cmf.org.uk/publications/content.asp?context=article&id=1606
    Magnetic

  3. Anonymous says:

    “And furthermore you get them to pay for their own extermination. With ever-rising taxes on tobacco, and finally paying with their own money for the prescription drug that will kill them.”
    The use of euphemisms distorted the facts and added a veneer of respectability to the proceedings. The Reich Committee for the scientific approach to severe illness due to heredity and constitution arranged for the killing of handicapped children. The charitable transport company for the sick transported adult patients to the killing centres while The Charitable Foundation for Institutional Care collected the cost of killings from bereaved relatives. The SS Xray Battalion identified TB patients in the general population and then shot them.
    http://www.cmf.org.uk/publications/content.asp?context=article&id=1606
    Magnetic

  4. Anonymous says:

    Champix = Suicide
    I took Champix for two weeks and was so severely depressed all I thought of was suicide.

  5. Anonymous says:

    Champix = Suicide
    I took Champix for two weeks and was so severely depressed all I thought of was suicide.

  6. Anonymous says:

    Champix = Suicide
    I took Champix for two weeks and was so severely depressed all I thought of was suicide.

  7. Anonymous says:

    Chantix worse than you know
    Wasn’t there an old Noel Coward song titled “You Don’t Know The Half of It, Dearie, Blues”?
    Well, here’s the other half. In 2008, the FDA warned it caused “serious neuropsychiatric problems.” For what constitutes a “serious problem,” read this account:
    http://nymag.com/news/features/43892/
    Or go to http://www.askapatient.com and find scores of posts like these
    COMPLETE personality change, emotional, sadness off the charts, etc.
    I quit in September of 2006 (15 MONTHS AGO)and I’m still not the person I was. I hate life. I JUST WANT TO BE ME AGAIN! If I was depressed because of withdrawals, it would be over now. I don’t have insurance anymore and I can’t afford doctor visits. “Chantix blocks nicotine from reaching key receptors in the brain” is how it works. Yes, it does that. But now all my key pleasure receptors are blocked – apparently forever. Even smoking again won’t bring “me” back. I would have rather died from smoking. At least I would have still been “me” during life. P.S. I have no history of depression.
    F (no age given), 12 weeks
    Horrible panic attacks; paranoia; nausea and vomiting; vision problems
    Took for two weeks, then stopped smoking for 12 hours. Had an angry outburst at work, lost the ability to perform simple tasks, went to the doctor at the urgency of co-workers. Was hysterical and in tears for no reason by the time I arrived. Doctor told me to go off Chantix. Ended up in ER for paranoid delusions and severe panic attacks the following night. Have been off Chantix for 2 months and am still having problems with vision, cognitive function, memory and anxiety. I’ve lost my job, still can’t concentrate and wonder how I’ll ever get through the rest of my life, whick is an absolute hell now. Used to be a normal, functing, happy, creative, intelligent person….
    F,47, 14 days
    :

  8. Anonymous says:

    Chantix worse than you know
    Wasn’t there an old Noel Coward song titled “You Don’t Know The Half of It, Dearie, Blues”?
    Well, here’s the other half. In 2008, the FDA warned it caused “serious neuropsychiatric problems.” For what constitutes a “serious problem,” read this account:
    http://nymag.com/news/features/43892/
    Or go to http://www.askapatient.com and find scores of posts like these
    COMPLETE personality change, emotional, sadness off the charts, etc.
    I quit in September of 2006 (15 MONTHS AGO)and I’m still not the person I was. I hate life. I JUST WANT TO BE ME AGAIN! If I was depressed because of withdrawals, it would be over now. I don’t have insurance anymore and I can’t afford doctor visits. “Chantix blocks nicotine from reaching key receptors in the brain” is how it works. Yes, it does that. But now all my key pleasure receptors are blocked – apparently forever. Even smoking again won’t bring “me” back. I would have rather died from smoking. At least I would have still been “me” during life. P.S. I have no history of depression.
    F (no age given), 12 weeks
    Horrible panic attacks; paranoia; nausea and vomiting; vision problems
    Took for two weeks, then stopped smoking for 12 hours. Had an angry outburst at work, lost the ability to perform simple tasks, went to the doctor at the urgency of co-workers. Was hysterical and in tears for no reason by the time I arrived. Doctor told me to go off Chantix. Ended up in ER for paranoid delusions and severe panic attacks the following night. Have been off Chantix for 2 months and am still having problems with vision, cognitive function, memory and anxiety. I’ve lost my job, still can’t concentrate and wonder how I’ll ever get through the rest of my life, whick is an absolute hell now. Used to be a normal, functing, happy, creative, intelligent person….
    F,47, 14 days
    :

  9. Anonymous says:

    Chantix worse than you know
    Wasn’t there an old Noel Coward song titled “You Don’t Know The Half of It, Dearie, Blues”?
    Well, here’s the other half. In 2008, the FDA warned it caused “serious neuropsychiatric problems.” For what constitutes a “serious problem,” read this account:
    http://nymag.com/news/features/43892/
    Or go to http://www.askapatient.com and find scores of posts like these
    COMPLETE personality change, emotional, sadness off the charts, etc.
    I quit in September of 2006 (15 MONTHS AGO)and I’m still not the person I was. I hate life. I JUST WANT TO BE ME AGAIN! If I was depressed because of withdrawals, it would be over now. I don’t have insurance anymore and I can’t afford doctor visits. “Chantix blocks nicotine from reaching key receptors in the brain” is how it works. Yes, it does that. But now all my key pleasure receptors are blocked – apparently forever. Even smoking again won’t bring “me” back. I would have rather died from smoking. At least I would have still been “me” during life. P.S. I have no history of depression.
    F (no age given), 12 weeks
    Horrible panic attacks; paranoia; nausea and vomiting; vision problems
    Took for two weeks, then stopped smoking for 12 hours. Had an angry outburst at work, lost the ability to perform simple tasks, went to the doctor at the urgency of co-workers. Was hysterical and in tears for no reason by the time I arrived. Doctor told me to go off Chantix. Ended up in ER for paranoid delusions and severe panic attacks the following night. Have been off Chantix for 2 months and am still having problems with vision, cognitive function, memory and anxiety. I’ve lost my job, still can’t concentrate and wonder how I’ll ever get through the rest of my life, whick is an absolute hell now. Used to be a normal, functing, happy, creative, intelligent person….
    F,47, 14 days
    :

  10. Anonymous says:

    Chuckles
    It’s not about getting rid of smoking and smokers, it’s about selling Zyban, Chantrix, NRT etc. The fact that they don’t work for the supposed intended purpose is irrelevant, probably a bonus. Chronic medications and repeat sales, medications that need further medications, are the Holy Grail. Cures are a menace.
    Follow the money.

  11. Anonymous says:

    Chuckles
    It’s not about getting rid of smoking and smokers, it’s about selling Zyban, Chantrix, NRT etc. The fact that they don’t work for the supposed intended purpose is irrelevant, probably a bonus. Chronic medications and repeat sales, medications that need further medications, are the Holy Grail. Cures are a menace.
    Follow the money.

  12. Anonymous says:

    Chuckles
    It’s not about getting rid of smoking and smokers, it’s about selling Zyban, Chantrix, NRT etc. The fact that they don’t work for the supposed intended purpose is irrelevant, probably a bonus. Chronic medications and repeat sales, medications that need further medications, are the Holy Grail. Cures are a menace.
    Follow the money.

  13. Anonymous says:

    Smoking cessation
    My theory is that part of their strategy is to jump on the NHS gravy train. The targets of smoking cessation campaigns are usually people on low incomes (for the sake of reducing ‘health inequalities), who don’t pay for their own prescriptions. And of course they include people without any choices, such as patients in mental health facilities. This means that they can just apply pressure without worrying about whether the patients can afford the drugs, because the NHS pays for them anyway.

  14. Anonymous says:

    Smoking cessation
    My theory is that part of their strategy is to jump on the NHS gravy train. The targets of smoking cessation campaigns are usually people on low incomes (for the sake of reducing ‘health inequalities), who don’t pay for their own prescriptions. And of course they include people without any choices, such as patients in mental health facilities. This means that they can just apply pressure without worrying about whether the patients can afford the drugs, because the NHS pays for them anyway.

  15. Anonymous says:

    Smoking cessation
    My theory is that part of their strategy is to jump on the NHS gravy train. The targets of smoking cessation campaigns are usually people on low incomes (for the sake of reducing ‘health inequalities), who don’t pay for their own prescriptions. And of course they include people without any choices, such as patients in mental health facilities. This means that they can just apply pressure without worrying about whether the patients can afford the drugs, because the NHS pays for them anyway.

  16. Anonymous says:

    “Chantix blocks “nicotine” from reaching key receptors in the brain”
    Though not qualified to even have an opinion, I do hold a few suspicions.
    Bear with me –
    Nicotinic acid – 1941
    “In other words, we analyzed the saliva, which would have otherwise been swallowed. No Nicotinic Acid occurred in the smoker’s saliva before smoking. We feel that we have made this report sufficiently long to cover the discoveries, which we regard as quite remarkable.”
    http://tobaccodocuments.org/product_design/04365489-5491.html
    THE ABSORPTION OF NIACIN IN THE SMOKING OF CIGARETTES – 1944
    “The niacin content of unfortified tobacco was found to be 0.13mg. niacin over three fourths of the cigarette.”
    http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/action/document/page?tid=bde38e00&page=2
    “The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production”
    http://tinyurl.com/6ybwso
    CONCLUSION:
    These results suggest that the combustion process produces an ‘extract’ with superior antimicrobial activity and provides in vitro evidence for inhalation of medicinal smoke as an efficient mode of administration in traditional healing”
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18778765
    niacin
    “pellagra-preventing vitamin in enriched bread,” 1942, coined from ni(cotinic) ac(id) + -in, chemical suffix; suggested by the merican Medical Association as a more commercially viable name than nicotinic acid.
    “The new name was found to be necessary because some anti-tobacco groups warned against enriched bread because it would foster the cigarette habit.” [“Cooperative Consumer,” Feb. 28, 1942]
    http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/niacin
    “The term “niacin” used interchangeably with vitamin B3 is actually a non-technical term that refers to several different chemical forms of the vitamin. These forms include nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. (Nicotinamide is also sometimes called niacinamide.) The names “niacin,” “nicotinic acid,” and “nicotinamide” are all derived from research studies on tobacco in the early 1930’s. At that time, the first laboratory isolation of vitamin B3 occurred following work on the chemical nicotine that had been obtained from tobacco leaves.”
    http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=83
    Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
    “Niacin is a member of the B-vitamin family. It is sometimes referred to as vitamin B3. Nicotinic acid was first discovered as an oxidation product of nicotine and thus, the origin of its name. In fact, much of the confusion caused by the use of the term niacin for both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, as well as for nicotinic acid alone, was created by the attempt to dissociate nicotinic acid from its nicotine origins.”
    http://research.exercisingyourmind.com/2007/05/20/pdr-niacin-nicotinic-acid.aspx
    Rose

  17. Anonymous says:

    “Chantix blocks “nicotine” from reaching key receptors in the brain”
    Though not qualified to even have an opinion, I do hold a few suspicions.
    Bear with me –
    Nicotinic acid – 1941
    “In other words, we analyzed the saliva, which would have otherwise been swallowed. No Nicotinic Acid occurred in the smoker’s saliva before smoking. We feel that we have made this report sufficiently long to cover the discoveries, which we regard as quite remarkable.”
    http://tobaccodocuments.org/product_design/04365489-5491.html
    THE ABSORPTION OF NIACIN IN THE SMOKING OF CIGARETTES – 1944
    “The niacin content of unfortified tobacco was found to be 0.13mg. niacin over three fourths of the cigarette.”
    http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/action/document/page?tid=bde38e00&page=2
    “The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production”
    http://tinyurl.com/6ybwso
    CONCLUSION:
    These results suggest that the combustion process produces an ‘extract’ with superior antimicrobial activity and provides in vitro evidence for inhalation of medicinal smoke as an efficient mode of administration in traditional healing”
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18778765
    niacin
    “pellagra-preventing vitamin in enriched bread,” 1942, coined from ni(cotinic) ac(id) + -in, chemical suffix; suggested by the merican Medical Association as a more commercially viable name than nicotinic acid.
    “The new name was found to be necessary because some anti-tobacco groups warned against enriched bread because it would foster the cigarette habit.” [“Cooperative Consumer,” Feb. 28, 1942]
    http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/niacin
    “The term “niacin” used interchangeably with vitamin B3 is actually a non-technical term that refers to several different chemical forms of the vitamin. These forms include nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. (Nicotinamide is also sometimes called niacinamide.) The names “niacin,” “nicotinic acid,” and “nicotinamide” are all derived from research studies on tobacco in the early 1930’s. At that time, the first laboratory isolation of vitamin B3 occurred following work on the chemical nicotine that had been obtained from tobacco leaves.”
    http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=83
    Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
    “Niacin is a member of the B-vitamin family. It is sometimes referred to as vitamin B3. Nicotinic acid was first discovered as an oxidation product of nicotine and thus, the origin of its name. In fact, much of the confusion caused by the use of the term niacin for both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, as well as for nicotinic acid alone, was created by the attempt to dissociate nicotinic acid from its nicotine origins.”
    http://research.exercisingyourmind.com/2007/05/20/pdr-niacin-nicotinic-acid.aspx
    Rose

  18. Anonymous says:

    “Chantix blocks “nicotine” from reaching key receptors in the brain”
    Though not qualified to even have an opinion, I do hold a few suspicions.
    Bear with me –
    Nicotinic acid – 1941
    “In other words, we analyzed the saliva, which would have otherwise been swallowed. No Nicotinic Acid occurred in the smoker’s saliva before smoking. We feel that we have made this report sufficiently long to cover the discoveries, which we regard as quite remarkable.”
    http://tobaccodocuments.org/product_design/04365489-5491.html
    THE ABSORPTION OF NIACIN IN THE SMOKING OF CIGARETTES – 1944
    “The niacin content of unfortified tobacco was found to be 0.13mg. niacin over three fourths of the cigarette.”
    http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/action/document/page?tid=bde38e00&page=2
    “The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production”
    http://tinyurl.com/6ybwso
    CONCLUSION:
    These results suggest that the combustion process produces an ‘extract’ with superior antimicrobial activity and provides in vitro evidence for inhalation of medicinal smoke as an efficient mode of administration in traditional healing”
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18778765
    niacin
    “pellagra-preventing vitamin in enriched bread,” 1942, coined from ni(cotinic) ac(id) + -in, chemical suffix; suggested by the merican Medical Association as a more commercially viable name than nicotinic acid.
    “The new name was found to be necessary because some anti-tobacco groups warned against enriched bread because it would foster the cigarette habit.” [“Cooperative Consumer,” Feb. 28, 1942]
    http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/niacin
    “The term “niacin” used interchangeably with vitamin B3 is actually a non-technical term that refers to several different chemical forms of the vitamin. These forms include nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. (Nicotinamide is also sometimes called niacinamide.) The names “niacin,” “nicotinic acid,” and “nicotinamide” are all derived from research studies on tobacco in the early 1930’s. At that time, the first laboratory isolation of vitamin B3 occurred following work on the chemical nicotine that had been obtained from tobacco leaves.”
    http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=83
    Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
    “Niacin is a member of the B-vitamin family. It is sometimes referred to as vitamin B3. Nicotinic acid was first discovered as an oxidation product of nicotine and thus, the origin of its name. In fact, much of the confusion caused by the use of the term niacin for both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, as well as for nicotinic acid alone, was created by the attempt to dissociate nicotinic acid from its nicotine origins.”
    http://research.exercisingyourmind.com/2007/05/20/pdr-niacin-nicotinic-acid.aspx
    Rose

  19. Anonymous says:

    cont.
    Pellagra
    “Early neurological symptoms associated with pellagra include anxiety, depression, and fatigue; later symptoms include apathy, headache, dizziness, irritability and tremors.”
    http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/en/pellagra_prevention_control.pdf
    THE FORGOTTEN PLAGUE – The scourge of the South
    http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2000/8/2000_8_72.shtml
    The “Social Dip”:
    Tobacco Use by Mid-19th Century Southern Women
    “According to numerous observers of the time, the most distinctive characteristic that set apart many southern women from their Northern sisters was their fondness for tobacco.”
    http://www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/snuff.htm
    A STUDY OF THE HEREDITY OF PELLAGRA IN SPARTANBURG COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA
    Vol. XVIII No. 1, JULY 1916
    “Early in the spring of 1913 the desirability of the study of pellagra from the viewpoint of heredity as a causative factor was brought to the attention of the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra Commission by Dr. Charles B. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.
    Under the joint patronage of the two offices fieldwork was begun in Spartanburg, June 1, 1913, and continued until Oct. 1, 1913. Through the winter the data collected were carefully reviewed, arranged in family groups and charted. It was found that in many instances more details were necessary, and the Thompson Pellagra Commission in 1914 decided that the results obtained were of sufficient merit to warrant another summer’s work.
    Accordingly, fieldwork was begun May 1, 1914, and continued until Sept. 1, 1914.
    This year the association of pellagrins with antecedent cases was also carefully noted for comparison”
    http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/XVIII/1/32
    “Even though Doctor Goldberger proved that pellagra was a vitamin deficiency, many of the doctors still clung on to the germ theory.
    “Although many scientific colleagues sang Goldberger’s praises, even mentioning a Nobel nomination, others still doubted. In the pages of the Journal of the American Medical Association, critic W.J. MacNeal challenged the results. One Birmingham physician referred to the experiment as “half-baked.” Still others thought the whole experiment a fraud.”
    http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/goldberger/docs/pellegra_5.htm
    Pellagra Cure Time 1938
    “Nicotinic acid, a distant relative (about second cousin once removed) of tobacco’s nicotine, is found in yeast, wheat germ and liver. When considerable quantities were fed to some 300 patients with pellagra, their sores healed, their cramps disappeared.
    Even patients who were violently insane dramatically regained their wits within 48 hours.”
    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,788409,00.html
    “The best-known vitamin deficiency disease is pellagra. More accurately it is a tryptophan deficiency disease since tryptophan alone can cure the early stages.
    Pellagra was endemic in the southern U.S.A. until the beginning of the last world war. It can be described by the four D’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death.
    The dementia is a late stage phenomenon. In the early stages it resembles much more the schizophrenias, and can only with difficulty be distinguished from it.
    “The only certain method used by early pellagrologists was to give their patients in the mental hospitals small amounts of nicotinic acid. If they recovered they diagnosed them pellagra, if they did not they diagnosed them schizophrenia”
    http://www.doctoryourself.com/hoffer_niacin.html
    Though the particular nicotinic receptor for nicotinic acid/niacin has been recently been found, I would be very surprised if we had managed to develop a specific “nicotine” receptor after only having been exposed to the molecule for 400 years.
    Rose

  20. Anonymous says:

    cont.
    Pellagra
    “Early neurological symptoms associated with pellagra include anxiety, depression, and fatigue; later symptoms include apathy, headache, dizziness, irritability and tremors.”
    http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/en/pellagra_prevention_control.pdf
    THE FORGOTTEN PLAGUE – The scourge of the South
    http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2000/8/2000_8_72.shtml
    The “Social Dip”:
    Tobacco Use by Mid-19th Century Southern Women
    “According to numerous observers of the time, the most distinctive characteristic that set apart many southern women from their Northern sisters was their fondness for tobacco.”
    http://www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/snuff.htm
    A STUDY OF THE HEREDITY OF PELLAGRA IN SPARTANBURG COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA
    Vol. XVIII No. 1, JULY 1916
    “Early in the spring of 1913 the desirability of the study of pellagra from the viewpoint of heredity as a causative factor was brought to the attention of the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra Commission by Dr. Charles B. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.
    Under the joint patronage of the two offices fieldwork was begun in Spartanburg, June 1, 1913, and continued until Oct. 1, 1913. Through the winter the data collected were carefully reviewed, arranged in family groups and charted. It was found that in many instances more details were necessary, and the Thompson Pellagra Commission in 1914 decided that the results obtained were of sufficient merit to warrant another summer’s work.
    Accordingly, fieldwork was begun May 1, 1914, and continued until Sept. 1, 1914.
    This year the association of pellagrins with antecedent cases was also carefully noted for comparison”
    http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/XVIII/1/32
    “Even though Doctor Goldberger proved that pellagra was a vitamin deficiency, many of the doctors still clung on to the germ theory.
    “Although many scientific colleagues sang Goldberger’s praises, even mentioning a Nobel nomination, others still doubted. In the pages of the Journal of the American Medical Association, critic W.J. MacNeal challenged the results. One Birmingham physician referred to the experiment as “half-baked.” Still others thought the whole experiment a fraud.”
    http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/goldberger/docs/pellegra_5.htm
    Pellagra Cure Time 1938
    “Nicotinic acid, a distant relative (about second cousin once removed) of tobacco’s nicotine, is found in yeast, wheat germ and liver. When considerable quantities were fed to some 300 patients with pellagra, their sores healed, their cramps disappeared.
    Even patients who were violently insane dramatically regained their wits within 48 hours.”
    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,788409,00.html
    “The best-known vitamin deficiency disease is pellagra. More accurately it is a tryptophan deficiency disease since tryptophan alone can cure the early stages.
    Pellagra was endemic in the southern U.S.A. until the beginning of the last world war. It can be described by the four D’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death.
    The dementia is a late stage phenomenon. In the early stages it resembles much more the schizophrenias, and can only with difficulty be distinguished from it.
    “The only certain method used by early pellagrologists was to give their patients in the mental hospitals small amounts of nicotinic acid. If they recovered they diagnosed them pellagra, if they did not they diagnosed them schizophrenia”
    http://www.doctoryourself.com/hoffer_niacin.html
    Though the particular nicotinic receptor for nicotinic acid/niacin has been recently been found, I would be very surprised if we had managed to develop a specific “nicotine” receptor after only having been exposed to the molecule for 400 years.
    Rose

  21. Anonymous says:

    cont.
    Pellagra
    “Early neurological symptoms associated with pellagra include anxiety, depression, and fatigue; later symptoms include apathy, headache, dizziness, irritability and tremors.”
    http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/en/pellagra_prevention_control.pdf
    THE FORGOTTEN PLAGUE – The scourge of the South
    http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2000/8/2000_8_72.shtml
    The “Social Dip”:
    Tobacco Use by Mid-19th Century Southern Women
    “According to numerous observers of the time, the most distinctive characteristic that set apart many southern women from their Northern sisters was their fondness for tobacco.”
    http://www.uttyler.edu/vbetts/snuff.htm
    A STUDY OF THE HEREDITY OF PELLAGRA IN SPARTANBURG COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA
    Vol. XVIII No. 1, JULY 1916
    “Early in the spring of 1913 the desirability of the study of pellagra from the viewpoint of heredity as a causative factor was brought to the attention of the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra Commission by Dr. Charles B. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.
    Under the joint patronage of the two offices fieldwork was begun in Spartanburg, June 1, 1913, and continued until Oct. 1, 1913. Through the winter the data collected were carefully reviewed, arranged in family groups and charted. It was found that in many instances more details were necessary, and the Thompson Pellagra Commission in 1914 decided that the results obtained were of sufficient merit to warrant another summer’s work.
    Accordingly, fieldwork was begun May 1, 1914, and continued until Sept. 1, 1914.
    This year the association of pellagrins with antecedent cases was also carefully noted for comparison”
    http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/XVIII/1/32
    “Even though Doctor Goldberger proved that pellagra was a vitamin deficiency, many of the doctors still clung on to the germ theory.
    “Although many scientific colleagues sang Goldberger’s praises, even mentioning a Nobel nomination, others still doubted. In the pages of the Journal of the American Medical Association, critic W.J. MacNeal challenged the results. One Birmingham physician referred to the experiment as “half-baked.” Still others thought the whole experiment a fraud.”
    http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/goldberger/docs/pellegra_5.htm
    Pellagra Cure Time 1938
    “Nicotinic acid, a distant relative (about second cousin once removed) of tobacco’s nicotine, is found in yeast, wheat germ and liver. When considerable quantities were fed to some 300 patients with pellagra, their sores healed, their cramps disappeared.
    Even patients who were violently insane dramatically regained their wits within 48 hours.”
    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,788409,00.html
    “The best-known vitamin deficiency disease is pellagra. More accurately it is a tryptophan deficiency disease since tryptophan alone can cure the early stages.
    Pellagra was endemic in the southern U.S.A. until the beginning of the last world war. It can be described by the four D’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death.
    The dementia is a late stage phenomenon. In the early stages it resembles much more the schizophrenias, and can only with difficulty be distinguished from it.
    “The only certain method used by early pellagrologists was to give their patients in the mental hospitals small amounts of nicotinic acid. If they recovered they diagnosed them pellagra, if they did not they diagnosed them schizophrenia”
    http://www.doctoryourself.com/hoffer_niacin.html
    Though the particular nicotinic receptor for nicotinic acid/niacin has been recently been found, I would be very surprised if we had managed to develop a specific “nicotine” receptor after only having been exposed to the molecule for 400 years.
    Rose

  22. Anonymous says:

    “Early neurological symptoms associated with pellagra include anxiety, depression, and fatigue; later symptoms include apathy, headache, dizziness, irritability and tremors.”
    http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/en/pellagra_prevention_control.pdf
    Interestingly, those collected symptoms are more usually described as the effects of “nicotine” withdrawal these days.
    Rose

  23. Anonymous says:

    “Early neurological symptoms associated with pellagra include anxiety, depression, and fatigue; later symptoms include apathy, headache, dizziness, irritability and tremors.”
    http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/en/pellagra_prevention_control.pdf
    Interestingly, those collected symptoms are more usually described as the effects of “nicotine” withdrawal these days.
    Rose

  24. Anonymous says:

    “Early neurological symptoms associated with pellagra include anxiety, depression, and fatigue; later symptoms include apathy, headache, dizziness, irritability and tremors.”
    http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/en/pellagra_prevention_control.pdf
    Interestingly, those collected symptoms are more usually described as the effects of “nicotine” withdrawal these days.
    Rose

  25. Anonymous says:

    Re: Chuckles
    It seems that the money is running out.
    “Big push” for UK biotech 2007
    “Now is the moment for a big push” in improving the environment for the UK biotech industry, argues Tony Blair, Prime Minister.
    “To allow the biotech industry to get some strength in research out of the NHS is something we need to look at in this country,”
    http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Big-push-for-UK-biotech/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/411036
    2009
    “The Government has placed the pharmaceuticals industry at the heart of its economic agenda with the appointment of Lord Mandelson and Alan Johnson to a key health sector group that will report to the Prime Minister.
    Gordon Brown has summoned senior industry figures, such as Andrew Witty, chief executive of GlaxoSmithKline, and David Brennan, his opposite number at AstraZeneca, to a meeting at No10 to discuss ways of protecting pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies, their revenues and their jobs, as the economy deteriorates rapidly.”
    http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/health/article5594350.ece
    “Big Pharma is in big trouble.
    Superficially, the world’s largest drug companies seem in good shape – profitability remains buoyant, and they have certainly ridden out the recession in fine style by comparison with those engaged in more volatile industries.
    After all, people get sick and need treatment, with scant regard for the phases of the business cycle. But beneath this healthy-looking exterior, a malignancy has been spreading through Big Pharma’s body corporate. The business model that helped create some of the highest-earning firms of modern times – names such as Pfizer in the US, Bayer in Germany, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and AstraZeneca in the UK – is running out of road.
    To add to the longstanding problems of patent expiry and the ‘genericisation’ of existing drugs – and the increasingly uphill task of finding new ones – structural changes in the business now loom large, as demographic and economic growth trends shift eastwards away from Europe and the US and towards the emerging markets.”
    http://www.managementtoday.co.uk/news/985297/can-glaxosmithkline-its-medicine/
    Rose

  26. Anonymous says:

    Re: Chuckles
    It seems that the money is running out.
    “Big push” for UK biotech 2007
    “Now is the moment for a big push” in improving the environment for the UK biotech industry, argues Tony Blair, Prime Minister.
    “To allow the biotech industry to get some strength in research out of the NHS is something we need to look at in this country,”
    http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Big-push-for-UK-biotech/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/411036
    2009
    “The Government has placed the pharmaceuticals industry at the heart of its economic agenda with the appointment of Lord Mandelson and Alan Johnson to a key health sector group that will report to the Prime Minister.
    Gordon Brown has summoned senior industry figures, such as Andrew Witty, chief executive of GlaxoSmithKline, and David Brennan, his opposite number at AstraZeneca, to a meeting at No10 to discuss ways of protecting pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies, their revenues and their jobs, as the economy deteriorates rapidly.”
    http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/health/article5594350.ece
    “Big Pharma is in big trouble.
    Superficially, the world’s largest drug companies seem in good shape – profitability remains buoyant, and they have certainly ridden out the recession in fine style by comparison with those engaged in more volatile industries.
    After all, people get sick and need treatment, with scant regard for the phases of the business cycle. But beneath this healthy-looking exterior, a malignancy has been spreading through Big Pharma’s body corporate. The business model that helped create some of the highest-earning firms of modern times – names such as Pfizer in the US, Bayer in Germany, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and AstraZeneca in the UK – is running out of road.
    To add to the longstanding problems of patent expiry and the ‘genericisation’ of existing drugs – and the increasingly uphill task of finding new ones – structural changes in the business now loom large, as demographic and economic growth trends shift eastwards away from Europe and the US and towards the emerging markets.”
    http://www.managementtoday.co.uk/news/985297/can-glaxosmithkline-its-medicine/
    Rose

  27. Anonymous says:

    Re: Chuckles
    It seems that the money is running out.
    “Big push” for UK biotech 2007
    “Now is the moment for a big push” in improving the environment for the UK biotech industry, argues Tony Blair, Prime Minister.
    “To allow the biotech industry to get some strength in research out of the NHS is something we need to look at in this country,”
    http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Big-push-for-UK-biotech/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/411036
    2009
    “The Government has placed the pharmaceuticals industry at the heart of its economic agenda with the appointment of Lord Mandelson and Alan Johnson to a key health sector group that will report to the Prime Minister.
    Gordon Brown has summoned senior industry figures, such as Andrew Witty, chief executive of GlaxoSmithKline, and David Brennan, his opposite number at AstraZeneca, to a meeting at No10 to discuss ways of protecting pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies, their revenues and their jobs, as the economy deteriorates rapidly.”
    http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/health/article5594350.ece
    “Big Pharma is in big trouble.
    Superficially, the world’s largest drug companies seem in good shape – profitability remains buoyant, and they have certainly ridden out the recession in fine style by comparison with those engaged in more volatile industries.
    After all, people get sick and need treatment, with scant regard for the phases of the business cycle. But beneath this healthy-looking exterior, a malignancy has been spreading through Big Pharma’s body corporate. The business model that helped create some of the highest-earning firms of modern times – names such as Pfizer in the US, Bayer in Germany, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and AstraZeneca in the UK – is running out of road.
    To add to the longstanding problems of patent expiry and the ‘genericisation’ of existing drugs – and the increasingly uphill task of finding new ones – structural changes in the business now loom large, as demographic and economic growth trends shift eastwards away from Europe and the US and towards the emerging markets.”
    http://www.managementtoday.co.uk/news/985297/can-glaxosmithkline-its-medicine/
    Rose

  28. Anonymous says:

    zyban
    I took a course of zyban a few years ago and the side effects were awful
    I have never suffered from depression etc.
    A few days into the course my whole personality changed. It was very subtle and hard to notice. I can only describe it as becoming ‘subservient’.
    I have always been quite a forceful person and always questioned authority. However, I became very easily influenced by people and things that I would previously argued against.
    It was terrible and I had no control over the personality change.
    As soon as I stopped taking zyban I returned to my usual self.
    Obviously did not stop smoking and once again was able to have a good argument with my husband !!
    If all smokers had been given this drug the Government would have had 25% of the adult population in the palm of their hands.
    As smokers are known to be the ‘rebellious’ types, this would have been a way to get them ‘under control’

  29. Anonymous says:

    zyban
    I took a course of zyban a few years ago and the side effects were awful
    I have never suffered from depression etc.
    A few days into the course my whole personality changed. It was very subtle and hard to notice. I can only describe it as becoming ‘subservient’.
    I have always been quite a forceful person and always questioned authority. However, I became very easily influenced by people and things that I would previously argued against.
    It was terrible and I had no control over the personality change.
    As soon as I stopped taking zyban I returned to my usual self.
    Obviously did not stop smoking and once again was able to have a good argument with my husband !!
    If all smokers had been given this drug the Government would have had 25% of the adult population in the palm of their hands.
    As smokers are known to be the ‘rebellious’ types, this would have been a way to get them ‘under control’

  30. Anonymous says:

    zyban
    I took a course of zyban a few years ago and the side effects were awful
    I have never suffered from depression etc.
    A few days into the course my whole personality changed. It was very subtle and hard to notice. I can only describe it as becoming ‘subservient’.
    I have always been quite a forceful person and always questioned authority. However, I became very easily influenced by people and things that I would previously argued against.
    It was terrible and I had no control over the personality change.
    As soon as I stopped taking zyban I returned to my usual self.
    Obviously did not stop smoking and once again was able to have a good argument with my husband !!
    If all smokers had been given this drug the Government would have had 25% of the adult population in the palm of their hands.
    As smokers are known to be the ‘rebellious’ types, this would have been a way to get them ‘under control’

  31. Frank Davis says:

    Re: Chantix worse than you know
    That first story is horrifying. To be permanently changed.
    Frank

  32. Frank Davis says:

    Re: Chantix worse than you know
    That first story is horrifying. To be permanently changed.
    Frank

  33. Frank Davis says:

    Re: Chantix worse than you know
    That first story is horrifying. To be permanently changed.
    Frank

  34. Frank Davis says:

    Re: Chuckles
    Well, obviously money is a big part of it. But I’m not sure it provides the entire explanation. Because they – the public health medical authorities who are in league with governments – actually are trying to get rid of smoking and smokers, for reasons which have to do with their ideology of health rather than money.
    It’s antismoking ideology, as it acts to denormalise smokers, which creates the market for stop-smoking drugs (which wouldn’t exist otherwise), as people try to be ‘normal’ non-smokers. The pharma companies see a market in these smokers who are being driven to stop smoking.
    Maybe when that happens, the pharma companies then start funding antismoking lobby groups like ASH to press governments to get even tougher on smokers, so that more of them will be driven to try out Zyban, Chantix, etc. And that maybe sets up a vicious circle, whereby the tougher governments are on smokers, the greater the profits of the pharma comapanies, who then lobby via ASH and others for still more draconian treatment of smokers, and so on.
    But it’s the ideology that starts it all up. It’s a bit like global warming scaremongering has created markets for wind farms, carbon trading, and so on. But it’s Green ideology that kicked it all off.
    Frank

  35. Frank Davis says:

    Re: Chuckles
    Well, obviously money is a big part of it. But I’m not sure it provides the entire explanation. Because they – the public health medical authorities who are in league with governments – actually are trying to get rid of smoking and smokers, for reasons which have to do with their ideology of health rather than money.
    It’s antismoking ideology, as it acts to denormalise smokers, which creates the market for stop-smoking drugs (which wouldn’t exist otherwise), as people try to be ‘normal’ non-smokers. The pharma companies see a market in these smokers who are being driven to stop smoking.
    Maybe when that happens, the pharma companies then start funding antismoking lobby groups like ASH to press governments to get even tougher on smokers, so that more of them will be driven to try out Zyban, Chantix, etc. And that maybe sets up a vicious circle, whereby the tougher governments are on smokers, the greater the profits of the pharma comapanies, who then lobby via ASH and others for still more draconian treatment of smokers, and so on.
    But it’s the ideology that starts it all up. It’s a bit like global warming scaremongering has created markets for wind farms, carbon trading, and so on. But it’s Green ideology that kicked it all off.
    Frank

  36. Frank Davis says:

    Re: Chuckles
    Well, obviously money is a big part of it. But I’m not sure it provides the entire explanation. Because they – the public health medical authorities who are in league with governments – actually are trying to get rid of smoking and smokers, for reasons which have to do with their ideology of health rather than money.
    It’s antismoking ideology, as it acts to denormalise smokers, which creates the market for stop-smoking drugs (which wouldn’t exist otherwise), as people try to be ‘normal’ non-smokers. The pharma companies see a market in these smokers who are being driven to stop smoking.
    Maybe when that happens, the pharma companies then start funding antismoking lobby groups like ASH to press governments to get even tougher on smokers, so that more of them will be driven to try out Zyban, Chantix, etc. And that maybe sets up a vicious circle, whereby the tougher governments are on smokers, the greater the profits of the pharma comapanies, who then lobby via ASH and others for still more draconian treatment of smokers, and so on.
    But it’s the ideology that starts it all up. It’s a bit like global warming scaremongering has created markets for wind farms, carbon trading, and so on. But it’s Green ideology that kicked it all off.
    Frank

  37. Frank Davis says:

    So giving up smoking = instant pellagra?
    But where do non-smokers get their niacin? Is it still being put into bread and cereals? Who manufactures niacin these days, and who do they sell it to?
    Frank

  38. Frank Davis says:

    So giving up smoking = instant pellagra?
    But where do non-smokers get their niacin? Is it still being put into bread and cereals? Who manufactures niacin these days, and who do they sell it to?
    Frank

  39. Frank Davis says:

    So giving up smoking = instant pellagra?
    But where do non-smokers get their niacin? Is it still being put into bread and cereals? Who manufactures niacin these days, and who do they sell it to?
    Frank

  40. Anonymous says:

    Oh no, its in your naturally in lots of foods, large amounts in your coffee, some in your tea, in enriched foods etc.
    But that all takes the long way round and is processed and distributed throughout the body, not direct to the brain through the bloodstream, if the science is to be believed.
    Apparently, it can’t be retained in the body, so its not unreasonable to take a little at intervals through the day.
    Medicine: The Nation’s Food – 1941
    “A necessary vitamin is B—a group of at least half a dozen different chemicals. Most radio listeners, said Vice President Wallace last week, know B as the “oomph vitamin, that puts the sparkle in your eye, the spring in your step, the zip in your soul!” Vitamin B is found abundantly in whole wheat and coarse grains, is appreciably reduced in the milling process, when the rough coat is “scalped”‘ from wheat kernel.
    Most of the big flour mills and bakers have recently agreed to put vitamin B1; nicotinic acid and iron back into their flour and bread. But experts last week pointed out that such “enriched bread,” although a step forward, was not the ideal solution of the problem.
    Reasons: 1) sufficient productive capacity for riboflavin, which may be a required ingredient of the new flour, will not be ready for almost a year; 2) enriched flour is not as rich in minerals and vitamins as whole grain; 3) to keep up his vitamin BI requirement from this source alone, a person would have to eat almost a whole loaf of enriched bread every day (of the non-enriched white bread, he would have to eat three to four loaves); 4) the amount of vitamins available to put into bread may just now be seriously curtailed by shipments to Britain; 5) natural flour goes a third of a way longer in breadmaking than refined flour.”
    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,795342,00.html
    As niacin has now been “linked” to obesity, the enrichment of flour to prevent pellagra may not continue for much longer.
    “It seems that the long-term safety of niacin fortification needs to be carefully evaluated”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100520112347.htm
    “Niacin is also called nicotinic acid and like its cousin nicotine, which smokers get from tobacco, is a substance that promotes proper activity of the brain chemical acetylcholine. This would tend to explain why smokers are about 50 % less subject to Alzheimer’s than non smokers. ”
    “Tryptophan is another one of those substances that have been “taken off the market” just as cigarette smoking is being banned and as the availability of niacin itself is being drastically reduced for “safety reasons” by EU and coming US legislation.
    That’s three natural substances that have been shown to be important for brain activity, all of them being greatly reduced in their availability.”
    “It seems odd to say the least that important brain nutrients are taken off the market, while psychiatric drugs are pushed off on people as if they were candies.”
    http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/sepp/2004/07/16/tryptophan_niacin_protect_against_alzheimers.htm
    However deliberately “blocking” the “nicotine” receptors may have a very different effect.
    Damaged, mutated or simply not enough of them appears to be the root of some very serious mental problems, though there appear to be several different types of nicotinic receptors.
    Rose

  41. Anonymous says:

    Oh no, its in your naturally in lots of foods, large amounts in your coffee, some in your tea, in enriched foods etc.
    But that all takes the long way round and is processed and distributed throughout the body, not direct to the brain through the bloodstream, if the science is to be believed.
    Apparently, it can’t be retained in the body, so its not unreasonable to take a little at intervals through the day.
    Medicine: The Nation’s Food – 1941
    “A necessary vitamin is B—a group of at least half a dozen different chemicals. Most radio listeners, said Vice President Wallace last week, know B as the “oomph vitamin, that puts the sparkle in your eye, the spring in your step, the zip in your soul!” Vitamin B is found abundantly in whole wheat and coarse grains, is appreciably reduced in the milling process, when the rough coat is “scalped”‘ from wheat kernel.
    Most of the big flour mills and bakers have recently agreed to put vitamin B1; nicotinic acid and iron back into their flour and bread. But experts last week pointed out that such “enriched bread,” although a step forward, was not the ideal solution of the problem.
    Reasons: 1) sufficient productive capacity for riboflavin, which may be a required ingredient of the new flour, will not be ready for almost a year; 2) enriched flour is not as rich in minerals and vitamins as whole grain; 3) to keep up his vitamin BI requirement from this source alone, a person would have to eat almost a whole loaf of enriched bread every day (of the non-enriched white bread, he would have to eat three to four loaves); 4) the amount of vitamins available to put into bread may just now be seriously curtailed by shipments to Britain; 5) natural flour goes a third of a way longer in breadmaking than refined flour.”
    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,795342,00.html
    As niacin has now been “linked” to obesity, the enrichment of flour to prevent pellagra may not continue for much longer.
    “It seems that the long-term safety of niacin fortification needs to be carefully evaluated”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100520112347.htm
    “Niacin is also called nicotinic acid and like its cousin nicotine, which smokers get from tobacco, is a substance that promotes proper activity of the brain chemical acetylcholine. This would tend to explain why smokers are about 50 % less subject to Alzheimer’s than non smokers. ”
    “Tryptophan is another one of those substances that have been “taken off the market” just as cigarette smoking is being banned and as the availability of niacin itself is being drastically reduced for “safety reasons” by EU and coming US legislation.
    That’s three natural substances that have been shown to be important for brain activity, all of them being greatly reduced in their availability.”
    “It seems odd to say the least that important brain nutrients are taken off the market, while psychiatric drugs are pushed off on people as if they were candies.”
    http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/sepp/2004/07/16/tryptophan_niacin_protect_against_alzheimers.htm
    However deliberately “blocking” the “nicotine” receptors may have a very different effect.
    Damaged, mutated or simply not enough of them appears to be the root of some very serious mental problems, though there appear to be several different types of nicotinic receptors.
    Rose

  42. Anonymous says:

    Oh no, its in your naturally in lots of foods, large amounts in your coffee, some in your tea, in enriched foods etc.
    But that all takes the long way round and is processed and distributed throughout the body, not direct to the brain through the bloodstream, if the science is to be believed.
    Apparently, it can’t be retained in the body, so its not unreasonable to take a little at intervals through the day.
    Medicine: The Nation’s Food – 1941
    “A necessary vitamin is B—a group of at least half a dozen different chemicals. Most radio listeners, said Vice President Wallace last week, know B as the “oomph vitamin, that puts the sparkle in your eye, the spring in your step, the zip in your soul!” Vitamin B is found abundantly in whole wheat and coarse grains, is appreciably reduced in the milling process, when the rough coat is “scalped”‘ from wheat kernel.
    Most of the big flour mills and bakers have recently agreed to put vitamin B1; nicotinic acid and iron back into their flour and bread. But experts last week pointed out that such “enriched bread,” although a step forward, was not the ideal solution of the problem.
    Reasons: 1) sufficient productive capacity for riboflavin, which may be a required ingredient of the new flour, will not be ready for almost a year; 2) enriched flour is not as rich in minerals and vitamins as whole grain; 3) to keep up his vitamin BI requirement from this source alone, a person would have to eat almost a whole loaf of enriched bread every day (of the non-enriched white bread, he would have to eat three to four loaves); 4) the amount of vitamins available to put into bread may just now be seriously curtailed by shipments to Britain; 5) natural flour goes a third of a way longer in breadmaking than refined flour.”
    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,795342,00.html
    As niacin has now been “linked” to obesity, the enrichment of flour to prevent pellagra may not continue for much longer.
    “It seems that the long-term safety of niacin fortification needs to be carefully evaluated”
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100520112347.htm
    “Niacin is also called nicotinic acid and like its cousin nicotine, which smokers get from tobacco, is a substance that promotes proper activity of the brain chemical acetylcholine. This would tend to explain why smokers are about 50 % less subject to Alzheimer’s than non smokers. ”
    “Tryptophan is another one of those substances that have been “taken off the market” just as cigarette smoking is being banned and as the availability of niacin itself is being drastically reduced for “safety reasons” by EU and coming US legislation.
    That’s three natural substances that have been shown to be important for brain activity, all of them being greatly reduced in their availability.”
    “It seems odd to say the least that important brain nutrients are taken off the market, while psychiatric drugs are pushed off on people as if they were candies.”
    http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/sepp/2004/07/16/tryptophan_niacin_protect_against_alzheimers.htm
    However deliberately “blocking” the “nicotine” receptors may have a very different effect.
    Damaged, mutated or simply not enough of them appears to be the root of some very serious mental problems, though there appear to be several different types of nicotinic receptors.
    Rose

  43. Anonymous says:

    Exacerbation of Schizophrenia by Varenicline
    “To The Editor: Schizophrenia is associated with heavy smoking. The replacement of tobacco by other forms of nicotine only occasionally achieves abstinence in persons with schizophrenia.
    The nicotinic agonist varenicline is a new alternative replacement agonist. There are no reports of its use in schizophrenia.
    We present the case of a patient with schizophrenia who received varenicline and experienced an activated psychotic relapse.”
    “In addition to its pleasurable effects, smoking is a possible self-medication for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
    We have postulated the involvement of a different class of postsynaptic cholinergic receptors, composed primarily of alpha7 subunits, which activate inhibitory interneurons and thus inhibit response to extraneous sensory response.
    Pharmacological activation of these receptors by more alpha7-selective agonists improves cognitive performance in schizophrenia.
    Consideration of the unique neurobiological vulnerabilities of persons with schizophrenia is necessary in the design of cholinergic therapies for psychosis and smoking cessation.”
    http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/8/1269
    “Nicotinic Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease
    “There are 2 main types of nicotinic receptor present in brain, the alpha4 and the alpha7 type, although many additional types also exist.
    Nicotinic receptors are largely localized to basal ganglia structures; and thus are of direct relevance to the fine control of movement.
    Interestingly, in Parkinson’s disease there is a loss of nicotinic receptors in these regions.
    Our studies have focused on whether nicotinic receptor activation can slow the neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson’s disease.
    We have already shown that the activation alpha4 type nicotinic receptor is important in preventing neurodegeneration in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. What we don’t know is whether these are the only types of nicotinic receptors involved”
    http://www.med.monash.edu.au/pharmacology/research/groups/loiacono.html
    Clear as mud.
    Rose

  44. Anonymous says:

    Exacerbation of Schizophrenia by Varenicline
    “To The Editor: Schizophrenia is associated with heavy smoking. The replacement of tobacco by other forms of nicotine only occasionally achieves abstinence in persons with schizophrenia.
    The nicotinic agonist varenicline is a new alternative replacement agonist. There are no reports of its use in schizophrenia.
    We present the case of a patient with schizophrenia who received varenicline and experienced an activated psychotic relapse.”
    “In addition to its pleasurable effects, smoking is a possible self-medication for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
    We have postulated the involvement of a different class of postsynaptic cholinergic receptors, composed primarily of alpha7 subunits, which activate inhibitory interneurons and thus inhibit response to extraneous sensory response.
    Pharmacological activation of these receptors by more alpha7-selective agonists improves cognitive performance in schizophrenia.
    Consideration of the unique neurobiological vulnerabilities of persons with schizophrenia is necessary in the design of cholinergic therapies for psychosis and smoking cessation.”
    http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/8/1269
    “Nicotinic Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease
    “There are 2 main types of nicotinic receptor present in brain, the alpha4 and the alpha7 type, although many additional types also exist.
    Nicotinic receptors are largely localized to basal ganglia structures; and thus are of direct relevance to the fine control of movement.
    Interestingly, in Parkinson’s disease there is a loss of nicotinic receptors in these regions.
    Our studies have focused on whether nicotinic receptor activation can slow the neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson’s disease.
    We have already shown that the activation alpha4 type nicotinic receptor is important in preventing neurodegeneration in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. What we don’t know is whether these are the only types of nicotinic receptors involved”
    http://www.med.monash.edu.au/pharmacology/research/groups/loiacono.html
    Clear as mud.
    Rose

  45. Anonymous says:

    Exacerbation of Schizophrenia by Varenicline
    “To The Editor: Schizophrenia is associated with heavy smoking. The replacement of tobacco by other forms of nicotine only occasionally achieves abstinence in persons with schizophrenia.
    The nicotinic agonist varenicline is a new alternative replacement agonist. There are no reports of its use in schizophrenia.
    We present the case of a patient with schizophrenia who received varenicline and experienced an activated psychotic relapse.”
    “In addition to its pleasurable effects, smoking is a possible self-medication for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
    We have postulated the involvement of a different class of postsynaptic cholinergic receptors, composed primarily of alpha7 subunits, which activate inhibitory interneurons and thus inhibit response to extraneous sensory response.
    Pharmacological activation of these receptors by more alpha7-selective agonists improves cognitive performance in schizophrenia.
    Consideration of the unique neurobiological vulnerabilities of persons with schizophrenia is necessary in the design of cholinergic therapies for psychosis and smoking cessation.”
    http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/8/1269
    “Nicotinic Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease
    “There are 2 main types of nicotinic receptor present in brain, the alpha4 and the alpha7 type, although many additional types also exist.
    Nicotinic receptors are largely localized to basal ganglia structures; and thus are of direct relevance to the fine control of movement.
    Interestingly, in Parkinson’s disease there is a loss of nicotinic receptors in these regions.
    Our studies have focused on whether nicotinic receptor activation can slow the neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson’s disease.
    We have already shown that the activation alpha4 type nicotinic receptor is important in preventing neurodegeneration in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. What we don’t know is whether these are the only types of nicotinic receptors involved”
    http://www.med.monash.edu.au/pharmacology/research/groups/loiacono.html
    Clear as mud.
    Rose

  46. Anonymous says:

    Hmm
    This might explain it.
    Temporal change in human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor after smoking cessation
    Abstract
    “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are of great interest because they are implicated in various brain functions. They also are thought to play an important role in nicotine addiction of smokers. Chronic (-)-nicotine, a nAChR agonist, treatment in mice and rats elicits a dose-dependent increase in nAChRs in the brain.
    Upregulation of nAChRs in postmortem human brains of smokers has also been reported. However, changes in nAChRs after cigarette smoking cessation in humans are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect the dynamic changes of nAChRs after smoking and smoking cessation in the brains of living subjects.”
    CONCLUSION: Because the upregulation of the nAChRs of the smokers after chronic exposure of the nicotine was downregulated to the nonsmokers’ level by around 21 d after smoking cessation, the upregulation is a temporary effect.
    The decrease in nicotinic receptors to nonsmoker levels may be the breaking point during the nicotine withdrawal period.”
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17942810
    “Upregulation: An increase in the number of receptors”
    “The use of ‘megadoses’ of niacin was first tried by Drs Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer in 1951. So impressed were they with the results in acute schizophrenics that, in 1953, they ran the first double-blind therapeutic trials in the history of psychiatry. Their first two trials showed significant improvement giving at least 3gs (3,000mg) a day, compared to placebos. They also found that chronic schizophrenics, not first-time sufferers but long-term inpatients, showed little improvement.
    The results of six double blind controlled trials showed that the natural recovery rate was doubled. Later they found that even chronic patients, treated for several years with niacin in combination with other nutrients, often recovered”
    http://www.foodforthebrain.org/content.asp?id_Content=1638
    Niacin Keeps You Healthy, Sane.
    “Niacin is grouped with the B vitamins, as vitamin B-3. It is water soluble, which means you need to get it every day, at least 19 milligrams. Good sources include lean meat, especially organ meats, white meat poultry, fish, eggs, peanuts, avocados and wheat germ. ”
    “The oddest thing I can tell you about niacin is that its scientific name is “nicotinic acid,” and it is structurally similar to nicotine. Niacin supplements are often recommended to reduce cravings while quitting smoking; I’ve known this to work very well for friends. If you’d like to try this, the dose suggested is usually 50 milligrams three times per day”
    http://web.archive.org/web/20071107142535/http://www.medaus.com/p/132,7876.html
    Rose

  47. Anonymous says:

    Hmm
    This might explain it.
    Temporal change in human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor after smoking cessation
    Abstract
    “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are of great interest because they are implicated in various brain functions. They also are thought to play an important role in nicotine addiction of smokers. Chronic (-)-nicotine, a nAChR agonist, treatment in mice and rats elicits a dose-dependent increase in nAChRs in the brain.
    Upregulation of nAChRs in postmortem human brains of smokers has also been reported. However, changes in nAChRs after cigarette smoking cessation in humans are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect the dynamic changes of nAChRs after smoking and smoking cessation in the brains of living subjects.”
    CONCLUSION: Because the upregulation of the nAChRs of the smokers after chronic exposure of the nicotine was downregulated to the nonsmokers’ level by around 21 d after smoking cessation, the upregulation is a temporary effect.
    The decrease in nicotinic receptors to nonsmoker levels may be the breaking point during the nicotine withdrawal period.”
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17942810
    “Upregulation: An increase in the number of receptors”
    “The use of ‘megadoses’ of niacin was first tried by Drs Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer in 1951. So impressed were they with the results in acute schizophrenics that, in 1953, they ran the first double-blind therapeutic trials in the history of psychiatry. Their first two trials showed significant improvement giving at least 3gs (3,000mg) a day, compared to placebos. They also found that chronic schizophrenics, not first-time sufferers but long-term inpatients, showed little improvement.
    The results of six double blind controlled trials showed that the natural recovery rate was doubled. Later they found that even chronic patients, treated for several years with niacin in combination with other nutrients, often recovered”
    http://www.foodforthebrain.org/content.asp?id_Content=1638
    Niacin Keeps You Healthy, Sane.
    “Niacin is grouped with the B vitamins, as vitamin B-3. It is water soluble, which means you need to get it every day, at least 19 milligrams. Good sources include lean meat, especially organ meats, white meat poultry, fish, eggs, peanuts, avocados and wheat germ. ”
    “The oddest thing I can tell you about niacin is that its scientific name is “nicotinic acid,” and it is structurally similar to nicotine. Niacin supplements are often recommended to reduce cravings while quitting smoking; I’ve known this to work very well for friends. If you’d like to try this, the dose suggested is usually 50 milligrams three times per day”
    http://web.archive.org/web/20071107142535/http://www.medaus.com/p/132,7876.html
    Rose

  48. Anonymous says:

    Hmm
    This might explain it.
    Temporal change in human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor after smoking cessation
    Abstract
    “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are of great interest because they are implicated in various brain functions. They also are thought to play an important role in nicotine addiction of smokers. Chronic (-)-nicotine, a nAChR agonist, treatment in mice and rats elicits a dose-dependent increase in nAChRs in the brain.
    Upregulation of nAChRs in postmortem human brains of smokers has also been reported. However, changes in nAChRs after cigarette smoking cessation in humans are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect the dynamic changes of nAChRs after smoking and smoking cessation in the brains of living subjects.”
    CONCLUSION: Because the upregulation of the nAChRs of the smokers after chronic exposure of the nicotine was downregulated to the nonsmokers’ level by around 21 d after smoking cessation, the upregulation is a temporary effect.
    The decrease in nicotinic receptors to nonsmoker levels may be the breaking point during the nicotine withdrawal period.”
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17942810
    “Upregulation: An increase in the number of receptors”
    “The use of ‘megadoses’ of niacin was first tried by Drs Humphrey Osmond and Abram Hoffer in 1951. So impressed were they with the results in acute schizophrenics that, in 1953, they ran the first double-blind therapeutic trials in the history of psychiatry. Their first two trials showed significant improvement giving at least 3gs (3,000mg) a day, compared to placebos. They also found that chronic schizophrenics, not first-time sufferers but long-term inpatients, showed little improvement.
    The results of six double blind controlled trials showed that the natural recovery rate was doubled. Later they found that even chronic patients, treated for several years with niacin in combination with other nutrients, often recovered”
    http://www.foodforthebrain.org/content.asp?id_Content=1638
    Niacin Keeps You Healthy, Sane.
    “Niacin is grouped with the B vitamins, as vitamin B-3. It is water soluble, which means you need to get it every day, at least 19 milligrams. Good sources include lean meat, especially organ meats, white meat poultry, fish, eggs, peanuts, avocados and wheat germ. ”
    “The oddest thing I can tell you about niacin is that its scientific name is “nicotinic acid,” and it is structurally similar to nicotine. Niacin supplements are often recommended to reduce cravings while quitting smoking; I’ve known this to work very well for friends. If you’d like to try this, the dose suggested is usually 50 milligrams three times per day”
    http://web.archive.org/web/20071107142535/http://www.medaus.com/p/132,7876.html
    Rose

  49. Anonymous says:

    “Who manufactures niacin these days, and who do they sell it to?”
    Nicotinic Acid Utilization of Tobacco Waste – 22nd July 1960
    “Nicotinic acid was first made by the oxidation of nicotine and Whiffens operate a commercial process in this country starting with tobacco.
    Later they were supplied with nicotine by the British Nicotine Company and continued the oxidation.
    Finally – before the Second World War – they found they were unable to compete with manufacturers starting from quinoline and picoline although it could be made directly from tobacco waste, from pyridine, some other coal tar bases, nicotine, anabasine, nor-nicotine or mixed tobacco alkaloids.
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture sponsored work aimed to make nicotine compete, as early as 1942, but although a new catalytic oxidation process was developed quinoline was still the cheapest source of nicotinic acid.
    Comparative costs were published in 1951 by Coal Tar Products of Philadelphia”
    http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/guildford/pdf/002/00000711.pdf
    Commercially, niacin is obtained from beta -picoline or from quinoline, which are both obtainable from coal tar.”
    http://www.chemicalland21.com/arokorhi/lifescience/foco/NIACIN.htm
    Lonza
    “Lonza is the leading and world’s largest manufacturer of Nicotinates (Niacin, Niacinamide).”
    http://www.lonza.com/niacin/en.html
    Rose

  50. Anonymous says:

    “Who manufactures niacin these days, and who do they sell it to?”
    Nicotinic Acid Utilization of Tobacco Waste – 22nd July 1960
    “Nicotinic acid was first made by the oxidation of nicotine and Whiffens operate a commercial process in this country starting with tobacco.
    Later they were supplied with nicotine by the British Nicotine Company and continued the oxidation.
    Finally – before the Second World War – they found they were unable to compete with manufacturers starting from quinoline and picoline although it could be made directly from tobacco waste, from pyridine, some other coal tar bases, nicotine, anabasine, nor-nicotine or mixed tobacco alkaloids.
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture sponsored work aimed to make nicotine compete, as early as 1942, but although a new catalytic oxidation process was developed quinoline was still the cheapest source of nicotinic acid.
    Comparative costs were published in 1951 by Coal Tar Products of Philadelphia”
    http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/guildford/pdf/002/00000711.pdf
    Commercially, niacin is obtained from beta -picoline or from quinoline, which are both obtainable from coal tar.”
    http://www.chemicalland21.com/arokorhi/lifescience/foco/NIACIN.htm
    Lonza
    “Lonza is the leading and world’s largest manufacturer of Nicotinates (Niacin, Niacinamide).”
    http://www.lonza.com/niacin/en.html
    Rose

  51. Anonymous says:

    “Who manufactures niacin these days, and who do they sell it to?”
    Nicotinic Acid Utilization of Tobacco Waste – 22nd July 1960
    “Nicotinic acid was first made by the oxidation of nicotine and Whiffens operate a commercial process in this country starting with tobacco.
    Later they were supplied with nicotine by the British Nicotine Company and continued the oxidation.
    Finally – before the Second World War – they found they were unable to compete with manufacturers starting from quinoline and picoline although it could be made directly from tobacco waste, from pyridine, some other coal tar bases, nicotine, anabasine, nor-nicotine or mixed tobacco alkaloids.
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture sponsored work aimed to make nicotine compete, as early as 1942, but although a new catalytic oxidation process was developed quinoline was still the cheapest source of nicotinic acid.
    Comparative costs were published in 1951 by Coal Tar Products of Philadelphia”
    http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/guildford/pdf/002/00000711.pdf
    Commercially, niacin is obtained from beta -picoline or from quinoline, which are both obtainable from coal tar.”
    http://www.chemicalland21.com/arokorhi/lifescience/foco/NIACIN.htm
    Lonza
    “Lonza is the leading and world’s largest manufacturer of Nicotinates (Niacin, Niacinamide).”
    http://www.lonza.com/niacin/en.html
    Rose

  52. Anonymous says:

    Посуточная аренда квартир в Петербурге
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  53. Anonymous says:

    Посуточная аренда квартир в Петербурге
    Vip квартиры посуточно в Петербурге – [url=http://www.peterburgrealty.info/vsya-nedvizhimost/turisticheskie-agentstva.html]Посуточная аренда квартиры в Петербурге[/url]

  54. Anonymous says:

    Посуточная аренда квартир в Петербурге
    Vip квартиры посуточно в Петербурге – [url=http://www.peterburgrealty.info/vsya-nedvizhimost/turisticheskie-agentstva.html]Посуточная аренда квартиры в Петербурге[/url]

  55. Pingback: Missive From ‘Merica: NWO? Oi! No! – Library of Libraries

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